The Cadillac — Scoobi LAND Sale — 10th Wave
Ninth wave has ended and the launch of the woofelous final tenth wave is finally here. Monday, April 11th 2022 at 1PM GMT. Opening doors to purchase and own one of the 32 Lands that are going to be listed. As scheduled, the price will increase to 0.333 ETH per parcel.
10th wave, the FINAL one is on the ride and we are introducing The Red Planet as a LAND NFT and a new fancy and exclusive perk, The Cadillac as EXTRA NFT that will give you access to many more advantages in the Scoobiverse overtime.
Sale starts Monday April 11th 2022 on Opensea: https://opensea.io/collection/scoobi-lands
Sale starts Monday April 11th 2022 on Opensea: https://opensea.io/collection/scoobi-lands
A pink Cadillac is low riding the streets with some heavy green smoke coming out of it. Oh yes we all know about it, when there’s this smell in the air, the Supreme Druid is not far… Snoop Doge the Lion of the Bone Gang, having his territory surrounded by the swamp and big trees of the Transylvanian forest! Some of them are smokable, I let you imagine the quantity the gang has in stock. Enough to supply the whole earth! But let’s come back to the Pink Cadillac.
You can see it on the cover of our limited Genesis Comic MEME Gold edition book, the first Act of a long series. It also appear episode 8, 9 and 10 of the 1st Act. Being pimped heavily by the Boredulon Musk, the scientist and twin brother of Draculon Musk, he loves building gadgets. This prestigious car has powerful hydraulics under the hood and since not long time ago, a huge bong has been plugged to it to make you feel good when you riding down the streets.
More precisely, the Cadillac DeVille which is a classic full-size luxury that was one of the longest-running car marques in the history of General Motors. The first DeVilles rolled off of the production line in 1958. Production continued up to 2005, spanning 8 generations of in total.
The name comes from the French phrase ‘de la ville’ which means “of the town.” In other words, this was meant to carry the air of the traditional Coupe De Ville or private short carriage with a separated area for the driver. The Cadillac Coupe DeVille was designed to be a luxury town car.
The DeVille name was retired in 2006 and replaced with the DTS line, which is seen as the continued development of the DeVille model line. The price of the various DeVille models range, but are commonly one of the most affordable classic cars available. If you are a proud owner of one, check out this value guide for classic cars to get an idea for how much it is worth.
At their core, lowriders are a vital expression of personal and cultural identity. This most notably holds true in Chicano/Chicana (or Mexican American) communities.
The history of lowriding is rich and complex. The term, “lowrider,” most commonly refers to vintage cars that are modified to stand low to the ground. Some of these cars’ builders themselves identify as “lowriders” (with the sense that they don’t drive lowriders — they are lowriders).
Equal parts artistry and engineering, today’s lowriders are characterized by numerous custom features. These include shiny rims, whitewall tires, candy coat paint, pinstriping, murals, old-school velour or leather interiors, and, of course, hydraulics. These are the technologies that allow lowriders to bounce, go three-wheeling, and more. Lowriders have greatly evolved since their early days, but much of what defines them is their connection to the past.
USA or Mexican?
The exact origins of lowriders are up for debate, with most citing Southern California as their birthplace. Others claim that lowriders really started in Tijuana, Texas, or New Mexico. In any case, lowriders cropped up in these areas during the post-WWII era of the 1940s and 50s. They were particularly popular amongst young Chicanos, who adopted the art of rolling “low and slow” (or bajito y suavecito). This was to go in direct opposition to mainstream culture, which focused on fast cars like hot rods.
When they were just starting out, these young Chicanos achieved lowered ride heights by cutting coils or lowering blocks. They even weighed down the backs of their cars with bricks or bags of sand or cement mix. But in 1958, California Vehicle Code 24008 basically outlawed lowriding. The new law made it illegal for any part of a car to be below the bottoms of its rims.
However, in 1959, a customizer named Ron Aguirre found a way to bypass this law. He took the Pesco hydraulics from a B-52 and installed them in his ’57 Corvette, which was called the X-Sonic.
That invention marked a big turning point in the evolution of lowriders. With the rise of hydraulics (pun intended), drivers could simply flip a switch to lower and lift their suspensions in order to make their vehicles street-legal. And they’ve continued to innovate these systems up to this day.
As a cornerstone of Chicano/Chicana culture, lowriding reflects the duality of Mexican Americans’ identity. America’s love affair with the automobile is as much a part of its heritage as baseball and apple pie. As such, cars became a symbol of the American dream for Chicanos and Chicanas. At the same time, as Mexican Americans experienced discrimination and exclusion, they redesigned these cars as a form of art and resistance to express their own identities. For them, lowriding became a means of surviving and thriving, a passion that created beauty and a sense of belonging.
From Whittier Boulevard in East LA to Barrio Logan in San Diego, and to San Jose, Espanola, New Mexico, and beyond, lowriding lies at the heart of many communities. Through car clubs, shows, magazines, and other media, lowriding has even spread across the globe to places like Japan and Europe.
Ask anyone in the lowrider community what lowriding means to them, and you’ll hear answers along the same themes — family, pride, honor, respect, and riding from the heart. These are values deeply shared by Mexican Americans and other children of immigrants. Many other cultures can relate to these values as well, which probably explains how lowriding has become as widespread as it is firmly rooted.
Horses before cars
But let’s go back in the past when horses were galloping on streets and cars weren’t widely spread. The U.S. Bureau of Census tagged the horse to car transition as “one of the main contributing factors” to the Great Depression because it drove down the price of grain so dramatically and extinguished scores of businesses and professions from carriage makers to teamsters.
The horse and all the small businesses that supported the animal from farriers to buggy whip makers became the backbone of 19th century life.
“Horses are not only self-feeding, self-controlling, self-maintaining and self-reproducing, but they are far more economical in the energy they are able to develop from a given weight of fuel material, than any other existing form of motor.” — Robert Thurston, a U.S. steam engine expert, opined in 1894
But the main problem is that an urban workhorse dumped between 20 and 50 pounds of manure a day on the street along with a gallon of piss. Add 500 horses per square mile and then do the math, some cities dumped the manure in rivers.
Tonnes of manure pounded and pulverized into dust attracted rodents and flies. By one wild government estimate, 95 per cent of all disease-carrying flies bred in horse dung. Dead horses often clogged city streets and teamsters on tight schedules added menace to public thoroughfares.
Urban reformers and public health officials disparaged the horse and saluted the automobile along with the electric trolley. Most predicted that cars would clean up streets roads, reduce congestion and restore order to city streets, if not “advance civilization.”
Car propaganda also portrayed the horse as “untamable beast” and author of “frightful accidents.” At the same time motor enthusiasts railed against regulations, speed limits and licensing requirement for new fancy jalopies.
In the end the removal of the horse from urban life and later the farm became a protracted drama that took more than 50 years. It also required the messy adoption of three fossil-fuel technologies.
Cars didn’t clean up cities but replaced stationary piles of dung with invisible clouds of pollution that moved with the wind. The automobile also allowed the rich and middle class to abandon public transit as well as street contact with the working poor and immigrants.
But the car’s exponential growth quickly exacerbated old urban issues from congestion to traffic fatalities. (Car crashes remain the leading cause of death for people ages 10 to 24 around the world.)
Los Angeles ranks 6th for most traffic-congested cities in the US. On average, Angelenos lost 62 hours in traffic, nearly the double the national average. New York topped the list with an average of 102 hours lost in traffic by New Yorkers in 2021.
The Longest Traffic Jam in History — 12 Days, 62-Miles (100 km) long. It happened on the Beijing-Tibet Expressway near Beijing and, ironically, the cause of the huge traffic jam was the road work on the highway.
Trucks carrying construction supplies to Beijing, most of them supposed to be used on the expressway in order to ease traffic, were blocked at the exit, thus causing a traffic jam that lasted over 12 days. Some of the cars advanced with a speed of 2 miles per day! The cause of the traffic jam is not an accident, nor is it an unexpected alien landing on the expressway. Authorities blame the whole mess on the precarious infrastructure. Nobody really knows how it all started.
“Insufficient traffic capacity on the National Expressway 110 caused by maintenance construction since August 19 is the major cause of the congestion” — a publicity officer with the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau was quoted as saying by the Global Times.
Sadly, traffic jams have a very negative impact on drivers’ health. Ever heard of the Traffic Stress Syndrome? It’s a disease that affects drivers and makes them feel scared whenever they’re stuck in slow traffic. As a result, some of them drive recklessly and press the throttle, which in some cases lead to serious consequences on the road.
Phatom traffic jams, when there’s no construction, accident or other possible explanation for the traffic, sometimes form because if there are enough cars on a highway, any minor disruptions to the flow of traffic can cause a self-reinforcing chain reaction.
One car brakes slightly, and the one behind it brake just a bit more to avoid hitting it, with the braking eventually amplifying until it produces a wave of stopped or slowed traffic. These traffic waves arise from small perturbations in a uniform traffic flow, like a bump in the road, or a driver braking after a moment of inattention.
The automobile also accelerated oil spending, expanded road infrastructure and played a major role in fouling the atmosphere with greenhouse gas emissions. To this day the combustion engine, which still employs one out of six U.S. citizens, accounts for nearly a quarter of all climate destabilizing pollution.
The real begins of cars
It all started in 1806 when a French-born Swiss inventor and a politician named Francois Isaac de Rivaz made the first internal combustion engine. This engine was fueled with a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and de Rivaz used it to equip what might be called the first means of locomotion with propulsion ever ever built. However, his first project was rudimentary and, therefore, was not commercially successful.
The first car in the world with an internal combustion engine was built by Siegfried Marcus. The idea of using gasoline as a source of energy for vehicle propulsion came to Marcus virtually accidentally. The German inventor living in Austria, accidentally fired a mixture of gas vapor and air. Thus, in 1864, the first gasoline engine was mounted on a carriage, and in 1875, Siegfried built a new version of its vehicle, an improved one.
However, the inventors of the first car in history are officially considered by German engineers Daimler and Benz.
Only in 1885, Karl Benz, a German engineer and inventor, built the first internal combustion four stroke engine fueled with petrol derived from oil. Although many German engineers of the epoch worked on their own version, Karl Benz is credited as the true inventor of the engine. He used his invention to equip the first car in the world that was not really more than a three-wheeled motorized chair.
Later, Benz designed four-wheel models with improved engines and in 1888 started in Germany the first automobile production in series.
Benz’s license was taken in France by Emile Roger, in 1898, Louis Renault produces its first automobile. In 1901 Peugeot appears and around the year 1903 begin in France the serial production of cars.
In the U.S., two men have had major influences in the automobile industry, Henry Ford and Ransom Olds. Olds is the founder of the manufacturer Oldsmobile and was the first to come with a low priced car in mass production, so that the general public was able to afford it.
However, Henry Ford is the one that will revolutionize the automotive history both by design changes, but especially with the large series production of in which his car, the Ford Model T, is created. Ford’s assembly line was considered a model for maximum efficiency, reaching in 1914 to be produced and sold 250,000 units.
Officially, the largest car engine ever made was the monstrous 28.5-litre engine that belongs to the short-lived Fiat S76 in 1910, which has been aptly nicknamed ‘the Beast of Turin’.
In the period 1920–1940 appear new building vehicles companies such as Chrysler (1925), Pontiac (1926), LaSalle (1927), Plymouth (1928). In 1922 appears the first car with unitary bodywork: Lancia Lambda with four-cylinder engine, independent suspension and brakes. Austin 7 appears on the UK market in July, its design was later taken over by other famous brands like BMW and Nissan.
In 1929, Alfieri Maserati builds first racing car: Maserati Tipo 26. The period of the Second World War is a time of stagnation for car production, especially in Europe whose efforts are focused on the production of combat vehicles.
Aware of the necessity to enter the war, the Americans design a vehicle able to travel on any terrain. Thus Chrysler built the first Jeep car type, patented in 1943.
After the war, in 1946, are made in Germany first 10,000 copies of the Volkswagen Beetle and in Italy, Enzo Ferrari launch Ferrari 250.
Biggest production car engine
Currently, the largest car engine available on a production car is an 8.4-litre Viper V10 engine produced by Chrysler, which has been responsible for some of the most insane performance engines of all time, including the Chrysler Hemi.
The bone-stock V10 produces a massive 640 horsepower, which when fitted to a Dodge Viper can take it from 0–60mph in a blistering 2.96 seconds, before hitting a top speed of 205mph.
Most powerful production car engine
Although the Chrysler V10 is physically bigger with a larger displacement, one of the most powerful and famous production car engine in the world is Bugatti’s 8.0-litre W16.
Not only is it one of the most powerful production engine ever, it’s also the most complex, boasting 64 valves, four turbochargers and enough pavement-shredding power to wrinkle God’s underwear.
Its W-shaped 16-cylinder layout, essentially an orgy between two massive V8s, has an output of 1,000-plus horsepower and a mind-blowing 1,250Nm of torque. If that’s not interesting, we don’t know what is.
The fire-breathing Quad-turbo 12.3-litre V16 engine on the Devel Sixteen hypercar unveiled in 2019, became obviously the most powerful production car engine in the world. The engine straps on a quad-turbo setup with the V16 layout. That’s four turbochargers like the Bugatti Chiron.
The chunky 81mm turbos were custom-built by Steve Morris an American-based company. They currently operate out of a deceptively bland building located on the outskirts of Michigan. The services they offer include complete engine builds, dyno tuning and track-side support. They are also in leading name in turbo and supercharged kits.
The 5,007 hp-powered Devel Sixteen weighs in at a hefty 2,300kg. At full throttle, the turbos produce 36 pounds of boost. That high-pressure air is sucked in gratefully by a short-runner intake to produce the real magic under the hood.
Biggest diesel engine
If you think that some of the previously-mentioned engines are big, you ain’t seen nothing yet compared to the world’s biggest diesel engine.
Not just the biggest diesel engine, it’s also the biggest conventionally-powered combustion engine on earth, and its name is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C. Standing at 89 feet (27.2 m) long and 44 feet (13 .4 m) wide, it’s bigger than many houses and has a colossal displacement of 25,480 litres.
To put that in perspective, that’s around the same size as 16,000 Ford Fiesta engines. It’s configurable with six to fourteen cylinders and can generate an absolutely mental 107,389 hp with more than 7,000,000 Nm of torque.
Designed to power some of the largest sea-faring vessels in the world like large container ships, this gargantuan engine consumes 39 barrels of heavy fuel oil an hour and costs around £44 to run each and every minute.
Craziest production engine
Imagine you’re a 1950s carmaker being pitched a new, experimental engine concept. Some German dude named Felix rolls into your office and tries to sell you on the idea of a three-pointed piston that spins around inside an oval box.
It looks like a ball of fire in a bingo cage, or a football rattling around the inside of a washing machine, but not only does it run, it actually happens to run incredibly well.
The engine works via a triangular rotor that spins within a housing and creates three chambers than are responsible for the four phases of the engine’s power cycle: intake, compression, power and exhaust.
Horsepower outputs are high relative to the engine’s displacement and it’s also extremely balanced, though on the other hand it does suck fuel like nobody’s business thanks to the elongated combustion chamber.
Still, weird it may be, but the Wankel rotary engine powered many cars over the years, including the Mazda RX-8 sports car. Although the RX-8 is no longer available, Mazda has recently been strongly hinting at a replacement and you know what? It’s even got a Wankel engine…
Big Oil Corporations Conspiracy
Do the big oil companies buy the patents to improved technologies over standard I.C.E.s (internal combustion engines) of today and hide them away in order to maintain dominance on the market? It’s sad but some corporations do this all time in all fields of industry, its kind of a common practice and it’s considered a smart way of doing business.
Some of the large oil companies like Shell, Chevron, and Exxon main business strategist just bought up the patent rights to new technologies and shelve them so that they can maintain their dominance over society’s transportation needs by proliferating oil and oil based products that I.C.E’s require such as gasoline, diesel, motor oil, transmission oil, and all the products that go along with it.
See about the case of the Chevy EV-1 and Toyota RAV-4 electrics from the 90’s, and a documentary called ‘Who killed the Electric Car’ as his main source.
GM, Chevron and CARB killed the sole NiMH EV once, will do so again
"Chevron controls the worldwide patent rights for NIMH batteries used in the RAV4-EV, and won't allow their use in…
Also oil companies tend to “spoil” patents, that is, to publish information so that others cannot patent it. The Times of Zambia was once much used for this. If you want a straightforward take on an oil company’s forward view, have a look at Shell’s briefing document (PDF from 2010) on the future demand mix. They are deeply worried by the very large gap that they see between energy sources and demand.
Is all this really true? Who knows, hopefully we will get more evidence in the future that it is or it’s not. Anyway let’s go a bit into statistics.
In 1980, 87.2 percent of American households owned one or more motor vehicles, 51.5 percent owned more than one, and fully 95 percent of domestic car sales were for replacement. Americans and humans in general have become truly auto-dependent.
But though automobile ownership is virtually universal, the motor vehicle no longer acts as a progressive force for change. New forces, the electronic media, the laser, the computer, and the robot probably foremost among them, are charting the future. A period of Humankind history that can appropriately be called the Automobile Age is melding into a new Age of Electronics.
Lambos for Police
LAPD owned a Gallardo Lamborghini that was donated to them in 2014 by Nathalie and Travis Marg of L.A.-based Light Source 1, Inc., a telecommunications contractor. The donation was meant to be on a short-term basis, as a way to attract attention to charitable events held by the department.
LAPD Lamborghini: Does the LAPD Really Have a Lamborghini Police Car?
Recently, photos of a Lamborghini with LAP D decals on the side of it have been circulating around the internet, with…
As if one Lamborghini Huracán isn’t enough, the Italian supercar brand is now donating a second example of the supercar to the Polizia (Italian Police). The Highway Patrol in Bologna will put the coupe’s high-speed capabilities to good use in urgent situations as a first-aid vehicle and as a transporter for organs. Resumes will likely be flooding in for the job of flying down the Autostrade (highway) for this important job.
Italian Police gifted second supercar from Lamborghini
Automobili Lamborghini Delivers a New Huracán Polizia to the Italian Police Huracán Polizia Rome/Sant'Agata Bolognese…
Sugar cars 1970s– Brazil
When the 1973 oil crisis hit home, the Brazilian government launched a major project to run the country’s cars on ethanol made from sugar beet. Almost 30,000 filling stations in Brazil now sell ethanol, which supplies a fifth of the country’s fuel.
First robot carmaker: 1961: Ewing, New Jersey, USA
Henry Ford pioneered automation, but General Motors took it a quantum leap further in 1961. That’s when the first-ever car-making robot started building car bodies at the GM plant in Ewing New Jersey.
Car-making memories: UK
Britain’s car industry once employed over a million people and was the world’s second-biggest producer after the United States. Today, the only big car plants left in Britain are run by Japanese firms and the once great names of British motoring — Jaguar, Rolls Royce, Bentley, and Aston Martin — are foreign-owned too.
If James Bond watched sports, you can almost bet that he would spend his time watching Formula 1 (F1). This sport simply exudes class, style, elegance, and danger. The world’s greatest drivers and vehicle manufacturers combine to bring the global audience a series of races that keeps spectators glued to screens from New York to New Delhi passing by New Zealand. Yes, it is a pretty big deal.
F1 has come a long, long way from the origins of the first Grand Prix. The cars, the drivers, and the engineers tasked with creating the highest level of human design and technology. You see, Formula 1 is more than just a few fast cars competing to beat other fast cars. It is the culmination of the hard work and constant effort of the greatest minds in auto racing.
Formula 1 was officially established on May 13, 1950, when the first official race was held in Silverstone, and the first official drivers’ championship began, organized by the FIA. Although there were many Formula 1 races throughout Europe (races with Formula 1 cars and Formula 1 rules), the FIA determined that only seven of those races would have points counted towards that year’s drivers championship. From 1950 on, the competition only grew, adding more races per season and expanding to new countries.
Formula 1 has quite an unfortunate history of deaths and injuries. In its first decade of existence, 15 drivers lost their lives in Formula 1 events, and through the next years, those numbers were still scarily high. Nonetheless, there would be no space for Formula 1 in the modern world if it was not safe. The FIA makes its drivers’ safety their priority, and every year there is an improvement in safety in Formula 1, and since 1980 the number of drivers that lost their lives is smaller than those of the 1950’s alone. The great drivers who lost their lives doing the sport they loved must not be forgotten, as they are a reminder of the love for the sport and that pilots’ lives must be put first.
One of the best
In 1976 Nikki Lauda, one of the most brilliant minds Formula 1 has ever seen, gets involved in a nearly fatal crash. Lauda came back in a shockingly short time, to keep his title hopes alive. It all came down to the Japanese Grand Prix, where James Hunt went on to beat Lauda for the World Championship In which is one of Formula 1’s most exciting stories.
Tobacco brought in a reported $350 million a year in 2000s, eventually resulting in a ban in 2006. Despite this, the sport has reportedly earned millions of dollars worth of tobacco-sponsorship revenue in recent years, earning criticism from big names such as the New York Times.
The Legend is writing history
Future Formula 1 legend Michael Schumacher starts in his first Formula 1 race for team Jordan in 1991, substituting one of the team’s main driver who was unable to take part in the race. Schumacher would win 7 world championships and is considered by many to be the greatest driver of all time. Unfortunately in December 2013, Schumacher suffered a severe brain injury in a skiing accident. He was placed in a medically induced coma until June 2014. He is now home receiving medical treatment and rehabilitation privately since September 2014.
Biggest Tragedy in F1
The weekend of May 1, 1994, was one of the darkest in Formula 1 history. On April 29, Brazillian driver Rubens Barrichello got involved in a scary crash that left the Formula 1 world shook. Fortunately, Barrichello got out of it with only a broken nose. The next day, April 30, Austrian rookie driver Roland Ratzenberger lost his life while driving.
After his death, many drivers wanted the race to be canceled, or planned not to race on Sunday, including three-time world champion Ayrton Senna. Senna, who was a legend of the sport and a hero in his home country of Brazil, ended up starting the race, during which he violently crashed against the wall. Senna died in the nearest hospital hours later. Ratzenberger and Senna’s deaths were the first in Formula 1 in 12 years, and that weekend is not always remembered with sorrow by formula one fans.
Impressive Ross Brawn
Have you witnessed one of Formula 1’s most beloved Cinderella stories. 2009, out of the ashes of the Honda F1 team (the Japanese manufacturer reeled from the impact of the 2008 financial crisis) Brawn GP was born in February, the team is on the verge of extinction and yet eight months later it is on top of the world and won the season. Brawn was then appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2010 New Year Honours for his services to motorsport. Team boss Ross Brawn is one of the coolest characters in sport.
Him and Nick Fry spent the winter of 2008 to 2009 looking for a new owner to buy the team until less than a month before the start of the season when a deal was struck whereby Brawn would buy it out and Honda would provide enough money to go racing for a season. So with three weeks to go before the season opener in Australia, the Brawn GP 001 finally hit the track, and it was true to its creators’ predictions, the car was dynamite.
What is less well known, though, is that the car was “a botch job”. It was designed for a Honda engine, and it was not until December that the team knew they would be using a Mercedes. That necessitated some pretty crude changes.
“The chassis had the back six inches cut off to fit the engine in — the sort of thing you wouldn’t normally do even with a test car,” says the source. “And the gearbox was in the wrong place because the crank-centre height is different. There’s a massive amount of compromise in the cars.”
Those compromises introduced a significant performance deficit into the Brawn car, but it raced like that all year.
Just as incredibly the team, tight on budget, made only three chassis all year (one for Button, one for Rubens Barrichello, and a spare) when a big-money outfit such as McLaren will typically make seven or eight.
That the Brawn was so quick in the circumstances is incredibly impressive. Having a Mercedes engine rather than the uncompetitive Honda undoubtedly made a big difference. Secret giveaway, the first to send BrawnIsCool to one of our admin on telegram or discord or by email will receive a land. Let’s continue, so clearly the team had also made a quantum leap with the car. And that says a lot for the way Ross Brawn, who joined too late to make any impression on the 2008 car, was able to marshal the team’s resources better than had been done before.
Brawn has now won nine F1 drivers’ titles and eight constructors’ championships with three different teams — adding his own to Benetton and Ferrari. Button is the first driver other than Michael Schumacher to be crowned under his guidance. But pinning down exactly what makes the softly spoken 54-year-old Englishman the best technical manager in F1 is surprisingly difficult.
The early races were marred by the controversy over Brawn’s ‘double diffuser’, which was eventually declared legal, and was never the sole reason for the car’s performance.
The Brawn team was given a financial boost on the eve of the Australian GP when Virgin boss Sir Richard Branson announced he was going to become a team sponsor. The team then got a second sponsor on board, the Swiss brokers MIG Investments. Brawn GP won the 2009 Formula One World Constructors’ Championship and one of its drivers, Jenson Button, won the World Drivers’ Championship at the Brazilian Grand Prix.
Brawn GP was bought out by Mercedes-Benz in November 2009. Brawn, as majority shareholder, stood to do very well financially from the deal and remained as team principal. He and Nick Fry kept a 24.9% share in the new team, which was then sold to Mercedes in early 2011. In December 2009 seven-time world champion Michael Schumacher confirmed that the main reason he decided to come out of retirement and drive for Mercedes GP was because of Brawn. It was at Benetton and at Ferrari where Brawn masterminded Schumacher’s seven world titles.
Business editor Chris Sylt says that Nick Fry and Ross Brawn shared an estimated £150M (195.5M $) profit between them from the sale of Brawn to Mercedes end 2009, the team they bought from Honda for just £1 (1.30$) in early 2009.
Like everything in Formula One, the steering wheel has been at the cutting edge of development since the very first F1 Grand Prix in 1950. From simple beginnings, F1 steering wheels are now multi-functioning portable computers that cost in excess of £25,000
Self-driving cars: California 2000
Who knows if we’ll even be driving cars in the future? Companies like Google are now busily developing cars with onboard sensors (like radar and lidar) that can navigate their way around the world while the people inside sit back and enjoy the view.
Part robot, part computer, part old-fashioned automobile, these hybrid machines are likely to prove far safer and much more environmentally friendly than cars driven by careless, fallible humans.
Some of the benefits we can reap from incorporation autonomous vehicles into our everyday lives:
- Fewer Accidents
- Decrease or Totally Eliminate Traffic Congestion
- Increase Highway Capacity
- Lower Fuel Consumption
- Enhanced Human Productivity
- Hunting for Car Parking Space Will be Eliminated
- Improved Mobility for Children, the Elderly, And the Disabled
- Elimination of Traffic Enforcement Personnel
- Higher Speed Limits
- Lighter, More Versatile Cars
Self-driving cars have been in the making for a long time. The good news is that they’re finally here and on the road. Undoubtedly, they will make our transportation safer and more efficient. It’s just a matter of time before we’re all able to text and ride and leave the driving to the car itself.
The self-driving car initiative was first realized decades before Google started doing technical research on the subject. The first recorded concept of an autonomous car was introduced in the 1939 New York World’s Fair in the Futurama section. General Motors created the Futurama exhibit as part of its vision of the future of America in 20 years time. Engineers and futurists included an automated highway system on which the self-driving cars would depend on to get people from one place to another.
Of course, it took over 60 years before robotic vehicles started cruising our streets, but they’re not as plentiful as General Motors imagined them to be and they didn’t even need to create the automated highway system. However, the goal to develop full-fledged autonomous vehicles is gaining traction with the goal of making driving efficient and safe.
By 1958 — almost two decades since they introduced the concept during the World’s Fair in New York — the self-driving car Norman Bel Geddes’ created for General Motors was finally realized. It relied on magnetized metal spikes embedded in the roadway and was remotely controlled by a device that guided the car by changing the electromagnetic fields in the spikes to keep the car inside its designated lane.
In 1977 the Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab made some improvements to GM’s self-driving car by using cameras linked to a computer, which could guide the car through the road at 20 mph via image data processing. The group continued to develop automated vehicles for 20 years and in this 1994 paper reported a vehicle built by Toyota, that was able to follow lane markings for up to 50 m at speeds of up to 50 km/h with a single camera.
Developed in the 1980s, the DARPA Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) was a 12 feet tall, eight-wheeled robot with multiple sensors, tasked to go from point A to point B without human intervention in the hills outside of Denver in 1985.
Ten years later, two of Germany’s leading car manufacturers, Daimler and Mercedes Benz, collaborated on a project called VaMoRs. The VaMoRs was a 5-ton Mercedes Benz van equipped with cameras and other sensors, modified to share data with an on-board computer that allowed it to drive the car unassisted. This technology was a big leap from Japan’s self-driving car, because it could cruise at 56 mph on any road or highway and not collide or crash with other vehicles or objects.
The improvement of the technologies used in self-driving vehicles is directly proportional to how these types of vehicles perform on the road. Better tech means better autonomous cars, but developers were just starting to scratch the surface.
You Can’t Talk About Self-Driving Cars Without Mentioning Elon Musk
The first company that Elon Musk started was Tesla Motors. He intended Tesla to be an all-electric, clean and energy-efficient vehicle manufacturer to kick-start his dream of a green future. The company was incorporated in 2003 and Musk immediately held a press conference stating that he would develop affordable AEVs (autonomous elective vehicles) for the US and the rest of the world in 3–5 years time.
The first AEV coupe that Tesla Motors developed was the Tesla Roadster which had a 7,376 ft-lb (10000.5 Newton-Meter) of torque, can do 0–60 mph (0–100 km/h) in 1.9 seconds and has a top speed of 250+ mph (402 km/h) within 20 seconds. For comparison, the fastest cars are the Devel Sixteen reaching an outrageous speed of 347 mph (550+ km/h) and the SSC Tuatara with a top speed of 331 mph (530 km/h). The Tesla roadster can go as far as 620 miles (1000 km) in a single charge and for an AEV released in 2012 with this specs was truly impressive! However, the Roadster cost $200,000 and obviously wasn’t feasible for the masses, but even the subsequent Model S still cost twice as much as the $30,000 Tesla sedan Musk promised.
From 2014 onward Tesla started to include the hardware needed for full self-driving capabilities in all of their vehicles even before the software/data was available, and yet Tesla has the best safety record compared to other auto brands in its class. Plus, Tesla’s Autopilot® feature in their vehicles has 360-degree coverage! Electronic sensors and cameras literally surround the car on every corner and can recognize cars and pedestrians on the road in various distances.
The narrow forward camera has a maximum viewing distance of 250 meters and it is backed up by the secondary camera/sensor, the main forward camera, which can see up to 150 meters. The wide forward camera scans the peripheral vision of the car up to 200 degrees even though it can only see up to 60 meters out into the road. Finally, the rearward looking cameras cover over 180 degrees of the rear of the vehicle and can see up to 100 meters away.
All these cameras and sensors combine to form a fusion of sensors and eyes of the vehicle making Tesla cars almost military-grade, unmanned navigation systems. But as advanced as this technology may seem, Musk said that it isn’t at full self-driving capability yet.
In January of 2019 Musk tweeted that in just 3–6 months Tesla motors would slowly depart from the autopilot feature and introduce its first-ever self-driving technology. As early as the year 2022 end, Tesla car owners would be able to safely drive almost 3000 miles from Los Angeles to New York City without ever touching the vehicle’s steering wheel.
With conviction you are more cultivated and you know much more about the history of cars, from the transition of horses to cars and the famous Cadillac DeVille or the Formula ones and self driving cars. We are sure that it is important to create this exclusive NFT to spell out the emblematic importance of cars and its underlying cadillac, lowriders, formula 1 and self driving spirits embroidered in the last century of the human history.
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